All who are justified by faith are the sons of God.
I am led to examine every theological or spiritual question by first remembering what my Lord, Jesus the Christ said about it. Pray to God our Father in His name as the only Teacher we need and ask for the Holy Spirit to guide me into His Truth. If a statement of His needs to be examined further I will try to utilize the historical, cultural and geographic hermeneutic, along with an in-depth study of the words used and interpretations given in as many versions of the Bible as I can. In the current computer age this is easier and much more cost-effective than before. I was once limited to the number of reference books and Bibles that I owned or could borrow. Finally, I will look at some good commentaries, starting with what the ante-Nicean fathers wrote and other Christians up to the modern age, which unfortunately has been tainted by dogmatic denominationalism.
Now regarding the sons of God, The Lord said…
Luke 20:34 And Jesus said to them, “The sons of this age marry and are given in marriage, but those who are considered worthy to attain to that age and to the resurrection from the dead neither marry nor are given in marriage, for they cannot die anymore, because they are equal to angels and are sons of God, being sons of the resurrection. But that the dead are raised, even Moses showed, in the passage about the bush, where he calls the Lord the God of Abraham and the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob. Now he is not God of the dead, but of the living, for all live to him.”
Being equal in “that age” seems to imply that in the resurrection those considered worthy will be equal to the angels and are sons of God, being sons of the resurrection. The hermeneutic applied here is that the resurrected righteous saints will be like the sons of God from the Old Testament. That implies that the Jewish audience of laymen, Scribes and Pharisees acknowledged that the angels were known as the sons of God as can be seen from multiple texts.
Job 1:6 Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan also came among them. ESV
Job 2:1 Again there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan also came among them to present himself before the LORD. ESV
Job 38:7 when the morning stars sang together and all the sons of God shouted for joy? ESV
This next verse has been interpreted as sons of God, but actually is the sons of Israel; the people in the tribes of Israel.
Deu 32:8 When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance, when he divided mankind, he fixed the borders of the peoples according to the number of the sons of God. ESV
Our Lord also said,…
Mat 5:9 “Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called sons of God.” ESV
In the above quote, The Lord is clearly speaking of His followers.
Next, let’s review the testimony from the Johannine literature (the writings of John the beloved disciple).
The Gospel of John 1:12 But as many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God, [even] to them that believe on his name: KJV
1Jo 3:1 Behold, what manner of love the Father hath bestowed upon us, that we should be called the sons of God: therefore the world knoweth us not, because it knew him not. KJV
1Jo 3:2 Beloved, now are we the sons of God, and it doth not yet appear what we shall be: but we know that, when he shall appear, we shall be like him; for we shall see him as he is. KJV
This was the inspired commentary of John on The Lord’s mission to redeem sinful man and transform them into His Divine image; Jesus the only begotten Son of God.
The Apostle Paul said…
Rom 8:14 For all who are led by the Spirit of God are sons of God. ESV
Rom 8:19 For the creation waits with eager longing for the revealing of the sons of God. ESV
Gal 3:23 Now before faith came, we were held captive under the law, imprisoned until the coming faith would be revealed. 24 So then, the law was our guardian until Christ came, in order that we might be justified by faith. 25 But now that faith has come, we are no longer under a guardian, 26 for in Christ Jesus you are all sons of God, through faith. 27 For as many of you as were baptized into Christ have put on Christ. 28 There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is no male and female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus. 29 And if you are Christ’s, then you are Abraham’s offspring, heirs according to promise. ESV
Phil 2:14 Do all things without grumbling or disputing, 15 that you may be blameless and innocent, children (Gr. teknon, son or child) of God without blemish in the midst of a crooked and twisted generation, among whom you shine as lights in the world, 16 holding fast to the word of life, so that in the day of Christ I may be proud that I did not run in vain or labor in vain.
Notice the hermeneutic of Truth; For all who are led by the Spirit of God are the sons of God. The creation eagerly awaits the revealing of the sons of God. That revealing will be in the age to come, for those who are worthy to attain that age (The Millennium) will be equal with the angels and will be called the sons of God, just as the angels were called the sons of God. The Old Testament saints along with those who did His will and not their own, who are worthy to obtain that age, will also be resurrected from the dead, along with the true followers of Christ, as well as His followers who will be caught up to Him and join those resurrected saints in the clouds with Him when He returns in His Glory to judge the cosmos.
So who are the sons of God? The short answer is the angels and all who are accounted worthy to obtain that age to come; the Millennium.